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David Spencer's Education Paragon is a free educational resource portal helping David Spencer's secondary school students, their parents and teaching colleagues with understanding, designing, applying and delivering assessment, curriculum, educational resources, evaluation and literacy skills accurately and effectively. This wiki features educational resources for Indigenous Aboriginal education, field trips for educators, law and justice education, music education and outdoor, environmental and experiential education. Since our web site launch on September 27, 2006, online site statistics and web rankings indicate there are currently 1,888 pages and 20,185,651 page views using 7.85 Gig of bandwidth per month. Pages are written, edited, published and hosted by Brampton, Ontario, Canada based educator David Spencer. On social media, you may find David as @DavidSpencerEdu on Twitter, as DavidSpencerdotca on Linkedin.com and DavidSpencer on Prezi. Please send your accolades, feedback and resource suggestions to David Spencer. Share on social media with the hashtag #EducationParagon. Thank you for visiting. You may contact David Spencer here.

The following resources are helpful to parents and teachers:

  1. Book: Supporting Successful Transition from Primary to Secondary School by Tina Rae (2014)
  2. Book: Book: Last Child in the Woods by Richard Louv (2008)
  3. Book: Digital Tools for Teaching: 30 E-tools for Collaborating, Creating, and Publishing across the Curriculum by Steve Johnson (2013)
  4. DVD video: Canadian Popular Music in the '60's, '70's & '80's by EMI Music Canada (2012)
  5. DVD video: Canada: A People's History produced by Mark Starowicz (2001).
  6. Book: Fire in the Bones: Bill Mason and the Canadian Canoeing Tradition by James Raffan (1999)

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David Spencer's Piano Resources
The shortcut to this page is http://piano.davidspencer.ca.

  1. Piano History and Types
  2. Piano Brands
  3. Buying a Piano
  4. Piano at Home
  5. Piano Education
  6. Piano Music
  7. Lead a Sing Song
grand piano


The acoustic piano is a musical instrument that makes sound through the mechanical movement of a keyboard, hammers and strings. It is used in classical and jazz music for solo performances, ensemble use, chamber music and accompaniment. The piano is also very popular as an aid to composing and rehearsal. Read more at Wikipedia.org

History of piano building in Canada.

The Piano Time Line: A Chronological History

Video: "How a grand piano is made

Types of Pianos

Piano Glossary

The Piano Glossary includes terms used by knowledgeable piano tuners and rebuilders. Sources: Forte Piano Company, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

  • The term A-440 concert pitch refers to A above middle C vibrating at 440 cycles per second.
  • The first note (on a standard 88 note keyboard) is A .
  • The exact middle of the keyboard is not middle C, it is actually the space between E and F above "middle" C.
  • The last note of the keyboard is C.
  • The average medium size piano has about 230 strings, each string having about 165 pounds of tension, with the combined pull of all strings equaling approximately eighteen tons! Read more piano facts.

Piano Age

History of the Piano

  • Square Grand Pianos For nearly 150 years, Square Grand Pianos were the Piano of choice in both America and Europe

Find the Serial Number of a Piano

Once you find the make and serial number of a piano, you will be able to find the year the piano was made.


How Old is Your Piano?

  • How Old is Your Piano? from bluebookofpianos.com. The age of your piano is determined by the serial number. You can find the serial number on the inside of your piano on the iron frame near the top of the strings and tuning pins.
  • How Old is Your Piano? from Antique Piano Shop. "The most accurate way to determine the age of your instrument is by its brand name and serial number. There are a handful of historical publications that are used in the industry to cross reference brand names with serial numbers in order to target dates of manufacture."
  • Pierce Piano Atlas was first published in 1947 and is now in its 12th edition. Each new edition is authoritatively expanded and updated to include new information on current manufacturers as well as additions to the history of manufacturers long out of business. More than 12,000 names are listed, providing ready reference to serial numbers, dates of manufacture, factory locations, a brief history of many manufacturers and other pertinent information.

Recommended Piano Dealers

The following are recommended piano dealers in the Toronto GTA.

  • Merriam Music located at 2359 Bristol Circle, Oakville ON phone: 905-829-2020 Piano brands sold include Google Map

Piano Dealers

The following are piano dealers in the Toronto GTA. Use at your own risk.

  • Best Piano located at 495 Champagne Dr., Toronto, Ontario, M3J 2C6 phone: 647-247-8944 Piano brands sold include Google Map.

  • Grand Touch Piano Restoration Dwight Pile operates Grand Touch Piano Restoration in Elora, Ontario N0B 1S0. phone: 519-831-6635 He sales some used painos. Is the primary rebuilding facility for Yamaha Music Canada.

  • Music Gallery located at 1800 Appleby Line, Burlington, ON L7L 6A1 Piano brands sold include Cable Nelson and Yamaha. phone: 905-639-4465 Google Map

  • MusicM located at 7035 Maxwell Rd, Mississauga, ON L5S 1R5 phone: 416-558-1088 Piano brands sold include Google Map

  • Ontario Pianos located at 1292 Eglinton Ave East, Mississauga, ON L4W 1K8 phone: 905-625-1616 or1-855-625-1616 Piano brands sold include Google Map

Burlington, ON L7L 6B5 phone: 1-888-742-6681 Piano brands sold include Young Chang, Niemeyer, Hobart M. Cable, Sherlock Manning and used Yamaha, Kawai and Samick.

  • The Piano Studio located at 69 Davis Drive, Newmarket ON L3Y 2M9 phone: 905 895 1844. Sells Roland and Yamaha digital pianos.

Piano Examples

This 5" 2' G-452 Wurlitzer piano was made by Young Chang in 1989. The serial number is 2056462. For a number of years, Young Chang made Wurlitzer brand verticals and grands in Korea which were marketed in the United States by Baldwin Piano & Organ. The Wurlitzer brand pianos were reportedly identical in construction to their Young Chang brand counterparts. The Wurlitzer electric piano was used on these songs.

Piano Tuning

Piano Rebuilders, Technicians and Tuners

  • Gerber Pianoworks Brampton and Orangeville, Ontario phone: 416-821-7084 or 519-942-0868 Contact Ted Gerber
  • Lee Tocher Piano Erin, Hillsburgh, Ontario phone:519-855-4984 Contact Lee Tocher.

Piano Regulation

Regulation is the adjustment of the mechanical parts that make up the action, keyboard, and trapwork, to compensate for wear in the cloth, and dimensional changes in the wooden parts. Regulation ensures that a piano is capable of producing a uniform touch, fast repetition, and wide dynamic range. With over thirty-five points of adjustment per note in a grand piano and twenty-five in an upright, regulation is a skilled job that takes a considerable amount of time to complete.
A need for regulation may show its ways for many ways. Inability to execute fast passages or legato touch may mean your piano needs regulating, rather than that you need to practice more, and bubbling or blocking hammers can destroy the tone of any instrument. An unregulated piano will not only perform poorly, but may have a shorter life span. Unnecessary and uneven wear develops as parts become misaligned and those that meant to push start to punch; and hammers break if they are unable to escape the pianist's finger pressure before they hit the string. Source: Forte Piano Company, Detroit, Michigan, USA

Caring for a Piano

Read your piano manufacturer’s manual and follow all advice. Have a piano technician check over, voice and tune your piano.

The cabinet can be cleaned with a damp T-shirt. Use plain water. Ask your technician how to polish your piano. A piano that is not tuned and played will lose value. A piano that is tuned faithfully and played regularly will sound better and retain more value as an instrument.

Cleaning the soundboard is best done with a vacuum cleaner hose held *just above the strings* on a grand piano. Don’t touch anything with the hose. The back of an upright can be carefully vacuumed with a brush attachment. Small dry paint brushes can be used in conjunction with vacuuming in the corners if your technician has given you some training. Please have the technician remove foreign objects from your piano. The bottom of an upright is where the dust settles.

Controlling moisture is the main thing. Installing a humidifier system with a "humistat" can be of great help. These contraptions fit inside the piano and maintain a constant level of around 40% relative humidity by adding or subtracting moisture as required. Source: Master Piano Technicians

One great favor you can do for your piano is climate control. Whether by room or whole house, stable temperature and humidity will help keep a piano in good shape. Source: Pete Summers Piano Tuning

"Tuning means correcting the pitch of every note by retightening the strings. Each piano string is normally stretched to a pressure of about 90 kilograms (198pounds). Eventually, though, it will stretch further with use and lose some of its tension, causing the piano to lose its correct pitch. The strings need to be tuned a minimum of twice a year to restore them to their proper tension.

Adjustment involves the entire piano action, keyboard and pedal movements. Proper adjustment is especially important for grand pianos. Whether the piano will perform properly or not depends on how accurately the adjustment is made." Source: * Yamaha Canada.

"The second most important thing you can do for your piano after tuning, is to control the humidity in the environment that the piano is being kept in. There isn’t a piano made that will stay in tune if it is exposed to dramatic swings in humidity. The parts of a piano are made of metal, felt and wood. The cast iron plate and steel strings are not greatly affected by high humidity or extreme dryness. But the felt and wood components will swell with rising humidity or shrink when the air dries out." Source: Thomson Lawrie Piano Technician.

If you have a piano built prior to 1950, it most likely as elephant ivory keys. Ivory importing was banned in the USA in June 1989. To buy replacement elephant ivory keys contact Elephant Ivory Tusks or search on {eBay]. Ivory turns yellow in the dark. Place your piano is a space that gets sunlight for several hours during part of the day. Do not have your piano in direct bright sunlight. Leave the cover open to allow the sunlight to naturally brighten the keys. Place your piano in an open area that does not accumulate heat to avoid damage or warping. White the keys with a damp cloth sprinkled with mild soap or vinegar. If you are careful, you may be able to remove some of the yellow stains on the keys with fine-gauge 0000/steel wool. Read more about how to clean ivory keys.

Piano Repair

  • Piano Forums from pianoworld.com. Ask questions of piano users, dealers and repair technicians.
  • PianoSupplies.com sells piano parts, benches, moving equipment, tuning tools, metronomes, cleaners and more.
  • André Bolduc of Pianos Bolduc uses Canadian and Quebec white spruce to make soundboards and Canadian maple pinblocks. Among its clientele are such prestigious names as FAZIOLI of Italy, SAUTER of Germany, BALDWIN and MASON & HAMLIN of the United States, as well as PRAMBERGER and HEINTZMAN.
  • Grand Touch Piano Restoration in Elora, Ontario