Music Theory

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David Spencer's Education Paragon is a free educational resource portal helping David Spencer's secondary school students, their parents and teaching colleagues with understanding, designing, applying and delivering assessment, curriculum, educational resources, evaluation and literacy skills accurately and effectively. This wiki features educational resources for Indigenous Aboriginal education, field trips for educators, law and justice education, music education and outdoor, environmental and experiential education. Since our web site launch on September 27, 2006, online site statistics and web rankings indicate there are currently 1,888 pages and 20,185,651 page views using 7.85 Gig of bandwidth per month. Pages are written, edited, published and hosted by Brampton, Ontario, Canada based educator David Spencer. On social media, you may find David as @DavidSpencerEdu on Twitter, as DavidSpencerdotca on and DavidSpencer on Prezi. Please send your accolades, feedback and resource suggestions to David Spencer. Share on social media with the hashtag #EducationParagon. Thank you for visiting. You may contact David Spencer here.

The following resources are helpful to parents and teachers:

  1. Book: Supporting Successful Transition from Primary to Secondary School by Tina Rae (2014)
  2. Book: Book: Last Child in the Woods by Richard Louv (2008)
  3. Book: Digital Tools for Teaching: 30 E-tools for Collaborating, Creating, and Publishing across the Curriculum by Steve Johnson (2013)
  4. DVD video: Canadian Popular Music in the '60's, '70's & '80's by EMI Music Canada (2012)
  5. DVD video: Canada: A People's History produced by Mark Starowicz (2001).
  6. Book: Fire in the Bones: Bill Mason and the Canadian Canoeing Tradition by James Raffan (1999)

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Music Theory Resources

The following music theory resources may be helpful for students and teachers.

  1. Video: "How to Read Music" with Tim Hansen a TEDtalk original.
  2. Blank Manuscript/Staff/Music Paper in PDF format from Dolmetsch Musical Instruments
  3. A to Z dictionary an audio dictionary of musical concepts, styles and instruments. You can listen to the sound files while reading the explanations. From Learning and Teaching Scotland.
  4. Music Dictionary from Dolmetsch Musical Instruments
  5. Free Ear Training on the Net
  6. Keyboard Chord Calculator from
  7. How music works. from
  8. Music Theory & History Online from Brian Blood
  9. Music Theory Worksheets from
  10. Music Theory Worksheets from
  11. Music Theory Q & A from Ars Nova Software
  12. Note Name Worksheets for elementary students. From
  13. Music Theory from Dolmetsch Musical Instruments
  14. Ricci Adams's
  15. Music Glossary from
  16. Music Reading Tutorials from
  17. Music Thory Tutorials from
  18. Music Theory Exercises from
  19. Music Theory Drills from
  20. Scales from other Cultures from Alexander Edward Sager, University of Calgary
  21. Tonal Music Theory Examples from Prof. Timothy Cutler Cleveland Institute of Music
  22. Listening revision exercises From Learning and Teaching Scotland.
  23. Scale Calculator from
  24. Music Quizzes and Games from
  25. Theory Video Lessons from provided by D'ADDARIO & CO.
  26. Music Theory Books to purchase from
  27. Music Notes Theory from
  28. Music Notes Theory from
  29. The Unspoken Word Theory from
  30. Music Theory Intervals from
  31. Chords and Triads from
  32. Expressions, Tempos and Styles from

Music Notes on the Grand Staff


The Grand Staff showing the note positions, note names and corresponding location on a keyboard.

Note Values


The Clefs

Each of the Clef symbols are positioned around a specific note. The treble clef symbol winds around the G above Middle C. The bass clef symbol curls around the F below Middle C. The alto and tenor clef symbols are positioned through Middle C.

  • The treble clef is a G clef.
  • The bass clef is an F clef.
  • The alto clef is a C clef.
  • The tenor clef is a C clef.


Diagram showing names for the Treble Clef, Bass Clef, Alto Clef and Tenor Clef. Source: 2006


Diagram showing Treble Clef, Bass Clef, Alto Clef and Tenor Clef. Source: 2006

Treble Clef

Bass Clef


Diagram of a bass clef lines showing the note names. Source: by Eric Rader


Diagram of a bass clef spaces showing the note names. Source: by Eric Rader


Diagram of bass cleff lines and space names, Source: Catherine Schmidt-Jones at Open Stax CNX.


Diagram of a bass clef and keyboard showing the note names. Source: by Eric Rader

Alto Clef

Tenor Clef

Circle of Fifths

Circle of Fifths with Key Signatures and Minor Keys

Music Instrument Performance Resources

  1. Tips for brass, guitar, vocalists and more from Canadian Musician and Professional Sound Magazines

Bass Guitar Theory Resources

  1. Electric Bass Guitar Basics from
  2. Electric Bass Guitar Theory from
  3. Major Modes
  4. Bass Guitar Neck Chart
  5. bass guitar arpeggios
  6. Scale and Chord Tone Fretboard Printer

bass guitar neck

Guitar Theory Resources

  1. Guitar Lessons For Beginners from Jamie Andreas
  2. A Guide to Guitar Effects from
  3. Harmonics by the Numbers from
  4. Guitar Secrets from Jamie Andreas
  5. Technical Tips from Jamie Andreas
  6. The Tools of Transcribing Music for Guitar from
  7. Pitch vs. Frequency from
  8. Auto-Transposer the automatic chord transposer from

Names of the guitar strings


Keyboard Theory Resources


A four octave keyboard that is not labelled. Source:


A four octave keyboard that is labelled. Source: