David Spencer's Education Paragon is a free educational resource portal helping David Spencer's secondary school students, their parents and teaching colleagues with understanding, designing, applying and delivering assessment, curriculum, educational resources, evaluation and literacy skills accurately and effectively. This wiki features educational resources for Indigenous Aboriginal education, field trips for educators, Davids Music Jam, law and justice education, music education and outdoor, environmental and experiential education. Since our web site launch 10.5 years ago on September 27, 2006, online site statistics and web rankings indicate there are currently 1,868 pages and 11,682,604 page views using 7.85 Gig of bandwidth per month. Pages are written, edited, published and hosted by Brampton, Ontario, Canada based educator David Spencer. On social media, you may find David as @DavidSpencerEdu on Twitter, as DavidSpencerdotca on Linkedin.com and DavidSpencer on Prezi. Please send your accolades, feedback and resource suggestions to David Spencer. Share on social media with the hashtag #EducationParagon
The Romans of present day Italy were active in commerce and trade. The number system the Romans developed was used for many centuries.
Roman numerals traditionally indicate the order of rulers or ships who share the same name (i.e. Queen Elizabeth II). They are still used in the publishing, music and film industry for copyright dates, and on some building cornerstones and gravestones. The Roman numbering system also lives on in languages that still use Latin word roots to express numerical ideas. Examples include:
Today we use Arabic numerals such as 1, 2 3, 4, 5. The Romans did not have a symbol for zero (0). For Roman Numerals, numeral placement within a number may indicate subtraction rather than addition.
I = 1 I means 1, II means 2, III means 3. However, four strokes seemed like too many....
II = 2
III = 3
IV = 4 Placing I in front of the V — or placing any smaller number in front of any larger number — indicates subtraction
V = 5
VI = 6 After V comes a series of addition
VII = 7
VII = 8
IX = 9 For IX subtract I from X, leaving 9.
X Numbers in the teens, twenties and thirties follow the same form as the first set, only with X's indicating the number of tens. So XXXI is 31, and XXIV is 24.
L L means 50. Based on what you've learned, I bet you can figure out what 40 is. If you guessed XL, you're right = 10 subtracted from 50. And thus 60, 70, and 80 are LX, LXX and LXXX.
C C stands for centum, the Latin word for 100. A centurion led 100 men. We still use this in words like "century" and "cent." The subtraction rule means 90 is written as XC. Like the X's and L's, the C's are tacked on to the beginning of numbers to indicate how many hundreds there are: CCCLXIX is 369.
D D stands for 500. As you can probably guess by this time, CD means 400. So CDXLVIII is 448. (See why we switched systems?)
M M is 1,000. You see a lot of Ms because Roman numerals are used a lot to indicate dates. For instance, this page was written in the year of Nova Roma's founding, 1998 CE (Common Era; Christians use AD for Anno Domini, "year of our Lord"). That year is written as MCMXCVIII. But wait! Nova Roma counts years from the founding of Rome, ab urbe condita. By that reckoning Nova Roma was founded in 2751 a.u.c. or MMDCCLI.
V Larger numbers were indicated by putting a horizontal line over them, which meant to multiply the number by 1,000. Hence the V at left has a line over the top, which means 5,000. This usage is no longer current, because the largest numbers usually expressed in the Roman system are dates, as discussed above.
- "Roman numerals." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 24 Oct 2009, 23:58 UTC. 25 Oct 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Roman_numerals&oldid=321849092>.
- Roman to Arabic Numerals Convertor Created by Carlos Guerrera <http://www.babylon.com/free-dictionaries/Roman_to_Arabic_Numerals/31586/C/1>
- "On Roman Numerals" from NOVA ROMA <http://www.novaroma.org/via_romana/numbers.html>