Canadian and World Issues
with David Spencer

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Refer to your textbook Clark, Bruce and John Wallace. Global Connections: Canadian and World Issues. Prentice Hall, Toronto 2003 ISBN: 0-13-041067-5. Answer all questions in complete sentences and include part of the question in each of your answers.

   Unit # 5

   Topic: Population and Demography Issues

During our class, make notes on the video we watch about the world's population explosion called "World in the Balance",WGBH Boston,U.S.A. , 2004. call #:363.91 Wor If you missed the video, you can sign it out from the
Brampton Library.

Video Notes Marking Scheme: (Communication ______/10 marks)

Textbook Work Marking Scheme: (Thinking ______/65 marks)

Copy down the heading "Demography".

1. (page 46)
a) Define the term demography?
b) Why is demography important to governments and business?

2. (page 49) Summarize the meaning of the expression "population explosion".

3. (page 49) Summarize the results and problems encountered by a country if the population declines.

4. (page 50) What two facts stand out about "hunters and gatherers"?

5. (page 52) What is the most important result of farming? Explain.

6. (page 53) How did the agricultural revolution affect the world's population? Explain.

7. (page 52) Examine Fig 4-5. List three (3) positive results from having a more reliable food supply.

8. (page 53) What happened to the importance of a person's physical strength in the industrial revolution?

9. (page 53) How did the production of steel affect agriculture during the industrial revolution?

10. (page 54) How did the industrial revolution effect agriculture and the resulting extra agricultural workers?

Measuring Demographics
Copy down the heading "Measuring Demographics".

(pages 54 - 57) For questions # 11 to # 21, clearly define the following terms used to measure demographics (the study of population trends).

11. birth rate and the Canadian connection

12. death rate and the Canadian connection

13. dependency load and the Canadian connection

14. emigration rate and the Canadian connection

15. immigration rate and the Canadian connection

16. infant mortality rate and the Canadian connection

17. life expectancy and the Canadian connection

18. natural increase rate for less developed countries compared with Canada

19. population growth rate

20. population pyramid and how it helps to compare countries

21. total fertility rate

The Five Worlds
Copy down the heading "The Five Worlds".
22. (Copy down the following statement) "The Five-World model is used today to measure similarities in economic and social development for countries"

(pages 22-23) Define and provide country examples for each of the five worlds in the Five-World model.
23. First World countries-

24. Second World countries-

25. Third World countries-

26. Fourth World countries-

27. Fifth World countries-

(page 22) In Figure 2-3, examine the map of the world and the legend.

28. Describe where most of the First (1st) World countries are located.

29. Describe where most of the Fifth (5th) World countries are located.

30. In your opinion and from what we have learned so far, why do you think leaders of Fifth (5th) World countries such as Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Haiti are struggling to develop and improve their situation? Explain.


Population Pyramids
31. (page 57) Using a ruler, pencil and graph paper, draw and label Fig 4-9 "Population Pyramids for Two Countries". Label your diagrams as shown.

32. (page 57) In your notebook, label the title and copy down the chart Fig 4-10 "A Description of Population Pyramids 1 and 2".

33. Which population pyramid might represent Canada? Why? Explain.

34. Which population pyramid might represent a Fifth World country such as Bangladesh? Why? Explain.


The Theory of Demographic Transition
Copy down the heading "The Theory of Demographic Transition".

35. (page 61) What has happened to family size over recent generations? Explain.

36. (page 61) Define the term "demographic transition".

(page 61) Examine the green box "Did you know?". Compare the historical population development records of Canada and Sweden.
37. Why is Sweden used to show demographic transition? Explain.

(page 62)
38. What was the life expectancy for Sweden in 1750?

39. List the factors in 1750 that caused a short life expectancy for residents of Sweden

A Falling Death Rate
Copy down the heading "A Falling Death Rate".

40. (page 64) Summarize Doctor Ignaz Semmelweis' germ theory of disease.

41. Why is the story of Doctor Semmelweis' a sad one? Explain.

42. Why is Joseph Lister significant to fighting disease in developed countries? Explain.


The Population Explosion
Copy down the heading "The Population Explosion".

43. (page 450 Glossary) Define the term overpopulation.

(page 77) Read the page "The Population Explosion".
44. List six (6) social and economic factors that increase the likelihood of a country shifting into the post transition stage.

45. (page 77) Describe the what the economy of India must provide to support the 18 million people who are added to India each year.

(page 82-83) Read about China's "One - Child Policy"
46. Review the eight (8) initiatives of China's "One - Child Policy". Select one initiative that might bother you as a Canadian that has more human rights than the Chinese. Why might this initiative seem unfair to you? Explain.

47. (page 83) What was the goal of China's family-planning measures?

48. (page 83) Examine three serious problems tied to China's population control policies. Describe one (1) of these problems and provide your opinion on the ethical or human right issue.

Internet Research

Start up your computer and log on the Internet here.
Then click on the web links below to find the answers for the following questions.

Population of Canada

Visit the following page on the Internet <>
49. a) Write down the year that one of your parents or guardians was born.
   b) What was Canada's population in that year? (note that you need to add three zeros to the number shown).

50. What was Canada's population in 2001?

51. Calculate the population change between 2001 and the year that one of your parents was born.

Visit the Population Clock for Canada on the following page on the Internet <>
52. Copy down the following statement. and fill in the blank "Canada's present population is estimated to be __________"..

53. List the three (3) factors that affect Canada's population growth , (Refer to the sentence "This growth is broken down into:")

Population of the United States of America
Visit the following page on the Internet <>
54. Copy down this statement. and fill in the blank "The United States of America's present population is is estimated to be __________".

Visit the following page on the Internet <
55. What is the population for the state of California for 2008?

56. Compare California's population with Canada's population.

Population of the World
Visit the following page on the Internet at the International Programs Center, U.S. Census Bureau <>..
57. According to this computer calculation, what is the estimated present population of the world?

58. Now count to 10 and refresh the web page. What is the population of the world after 10 seconds?

59. How many people were born after 10 seconds?

Optional Further Reading
If you have time, you may wish to do further reading and some simulation activities using
World Vision Canada resources on population. World Vision Canada also publishes current Issues in Global Population Part One (PDF) and Part Two (PDF)

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This Canadian and World Issues geography unit is copyrighted © 2003- by David M.R.D. Spencer
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